To intertwine scientific knowledge and practices and to empower students to learn through exploration, it is essential for scientific inquiry to be embedded in science education. In this unit, students will first develop an understanding of the biotic and abiotic factors within ecosystems, the characteristics and classification of living organisms, and how plants and animals obtain and use energy to fulfill their needs.

Then, students will delve deeper into the NGSS standards by examining the interdependent relationships within an ecosystem by studying movement of matter between producers, consumers, and decomposers by creating models of food chains and food webs.

At the end of this unit, students will study ways that individual communities can use science ideas to protect the Earth's resources and environment.

Today, I will open the lesson by completing yesterday's plant kingdom presentations. Students will then explore plant structures and plant needs. At the end of the lesson, students will reflect and apply their new understanding of plants by setting up an investigation on plant needs. Support an argument that plants get the materials they need for growth chiefly from air and water.

Develop a model to describe the movement of matter among plants, animals, decomposers, and the environment. Crosscutting Concept 6: Structure and Function. The energy released [from] food was once energy from the sun that was captured by plants in the chemical process that forms plant matter from air and water.

Organisms are related in food webs in which some animals eat plants for food and other animals eat the animals that eat plants. Organisms can survive only in environments in which their particular needs are met.

A healthy ecosystem is one in which multiple species of different types are each able to meet their needs in a relatively stable web of life. Newly introduced species can damage the balance of an ecosystem. Matter cycles between the air and soil and among plants, animals, and microbes as these organisms live and die. Organisms obtain gases, and water, from the environment, and release waste matter gas, liquid, or solid back into the environment.

With science, it is often difficult to find a balance between providing students with as many hands-on experiences as possible, having plenty of science materials, and offering students a collaborative setting to solve problems.

Any time groups have four or more students, the opportunities for individual students to speak and take part in the exploration process decreases. With groups of two, I often struggle to find enough science materials to go around.

So this year, I chose to place students in teams of three! Picking science teams is always easy as I already have students placed in desk groups based upon behavior, abilities, and communication skills. Each desk group has about six kids, so I simply divide this larger group in half. To encourage a smooth running classroom, I ask students to decide who is a 1, 2, or 3 in their groups of three students without talking. In no time, each student has a number in the air.

I'll then ask the "threes" to get certain supplies, "ones" to grab their computers, and "twos" to hand out papers or whatever is needed for the lesson.If you have any doubts please refer to the Jntu Syllabus Book.

Group layout, fixed position layout- Quadratic assignment model, Branch and bound, The burgers are cooked on a large grill, and the fries are deep fried in hot oil.

For safety reasons, the company requires that these cooking areas not be located near each other. Introduction to a Material handling system, Material handling principles, Classification of Material handling equipment, Relationship of material handling.

Methods of minimize the cost of material handling- Maintenance of Material handling equipments, safety in handling. Ergonomics of Material handling equipment, Design, Miscellaneous equipment 8. Follow us on Facebook and Support us with your Like. Vote count: No votes so far!

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Your email address will not be published. Table of Contents. How useful was this post? Click on a star to rate it! Leave this field empty.Available on Vedantu, the Morphology of Flowering Plants Class 11 Notes is prepared by subject matter experts with a wide experience.

These notes are according to the latest CBSE guidelines.

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Class 11 is your first step towards specialization. It is your stepping stone towards your future.

plant notes pdf

If you have a good grip on the fundamentals taught in Class 11, then learning in the subsequent years will be an easy cakewalk. In Science Stream, Biology is one of the most significant subjects. Biology may come across as a boring, lengthy, difficult and intriguing subject. However, this is far from the truth.

They cover all corners of the syllabus. They have been written in a lucid language to make 1 st time learning and revision sessions much more effective. All the concepts of each chapter have been logically sequenced and tied to each other in a manner that facilitates simpler, smoother, and paced up learning.

They are all that you need to score the desired exam score. Morphology: This section of the Morphology of Flowering Plants Notes introduces to the meaning of the term Morphology. It also teaches you about the two different types of Morphology namely Epidonomy and Anatomy. Epidonomy is the study of external morphology or the external appearance of an organism. Anatomy is the study of the internal morphology of an organism.

This section also tells you about the Shoot System and the Root System of a flowering plant.

plant notes pdf

Types of Roots: This section explicitly describes the three types of roots. They have been listed below. Modifications of Roots: This part of the chapter tells you how the roots of some plants modify their structure and shape to adapt for additional functions.

Stem: Morphology of Flowering Plants Chapter 4 teaches you about the meaning, significance, and the properties of the stem. It also teaches you about concepts such as Nodes, Internodes and Terminal or Axillary buds and branches. Modifications of Stem: this section of the chapter talks about the various Modifications in stems. Some of them include the following. It also teaches you about different types of Thorns and their properties. The different types of Thorns are Prickle, Spine, Thorn.

Leaf: This section of the Biology Class 11 Chapter 5 Notes teaches you explicitly about the different parts of the leaf. Types of Leaves: this section of the chapter lays out the different types of leaves.

It also gives you examples of each type. Reticulate Venation: When the veins of a leaf form branches and form a net-like structure its called Reticulate Venation.

Inflorescence: This section explains in detail what is inflorescence and its different types such as Raceme, Catkin, Spike, Umbel, Corymb, Spadix, and Capitulum.Transport in Plants is an important section of Plant Physiology unit as every year questions are asked from this chapter in NEET and other medical exams.

Similar to every other living organisms, plants also have an evolved transport system, which ensures for the conduction of water and nutrients in the plants. Plants vary in height from shrubs and herbs to tall trees. The presence of the transport system further ensures the long-distance transport of the plant.

Anatomy of Flowering Plants Notes for NEET, Download PDF!

This process of the transport of water and minerals in over a long distance is carried out through the vascular system and is referred to as Translocation. Following mentioned are the different processes, which help in the transportation of water and nutrients in the plants:. Plants require water for different physiological activities, for example, providing fluidity to cells, acting as the medium for the occurrence of several biochemical reactions, and several others.

The terrestrial plants require a huge amount of water, to suffice for the phenomenon of transpiration. It is defined as the process, wherein the plants lose water from the leaves by the process of evaporation, in order to keep its body parts cool lower temperature.

In case a certain amount of solute is dissolved in the pure water, its potential decreases. This magnitude representing the decrease in the water potential of the pure water, as a result of solute dissolution, is referred to as S olute potential.

Osmosis : It is the process similar to that of diffusion, except that the movement of the substances in diffusion occurs across a semipermeable membrane. Plasmolysis : It refers to the shrinkage of the cell structure, as a result of the movement of water out of the cell.

This usually happens when a cell is placed in a Hypertonic medium. Imbibition : It describes a condition of diffusion, wherein the water molecules are absorbed by a certain solid substance, such as colloid. Further, as a result of absorption of the water molecule, the substance increases in its volume.

One common example is the absorption of water by seeds. The movement of the food and water in the plants is generally categorized as mass flow movement, wherein the substances are transported from one region to another region in masses.

The hydrostatic pressure, both positive and negative aids in the process of mass flow. Transpiration is the loss of water from the leaves of plants as a result of evaporation.Translocation : Transport of substances in plants over longer distances through the vascular tissue Xylem and Phloem is called translocation.

Means of transport : The transport of material into and out of the cells is carried out by a number of methods.

CBSE Class 11 Biology Revision Notes Chapter 5 - Morphology of Flowering Plants

These are diffusion, faciliated diffusion and active transport. Diffusion : Diffusion occurs from region of higher concentration to region of lower concentration across the permeable membrane. It is passive and slow process. No energy expenditure takes place. Facilitated diffusion : The diffusion of hydrophilic substances along the concentration gradient through fixed membrane transport protein without involving energy expenditure is called facilitated diffusion.

For this the membrane possess aquarporins and ion channels. No energy is utilized in this process. Active transport : Active transport is carried by the movable carrier proteins pumps of membrane. Active transport uses energy to pump molecules against a concentration gradient from a low concentration to high concentration uphill-transport. It is faster than passive transport.

Water potential : The chemical potential of water is called water potential. Osmosis is movement of solvent or water molecules from the region of their higher diffusion pressure or free energy to the region of their lower diffusion pressure or free energy across a semi-permeable membrane. Water molecules move from higher water potential to lower water potential until equilibrium is reached. Plasmolysis : Process of shrinkage of protoplasm in a cell due to exosmosis in hypertonic solution.

CBSE Class 12 Biology Revision Notes Chapter 2 - Sexual Reproduction in Flowering Plants

It is the tangential as well as radial walls of endodermal cells having the deposition of water impermeable suberin. Imbibition : Imbibition is the phenonmenon of adsorption of water or any other liquid by the solid particles of a substance without forming a solution.

Some examples of Imbibition : i If a dry piece of wood is placed in water, it swells and increases in its volume. Mass flow : Mass flow is the movement of substances water, minerals and food in bulk from one point to another as a result of pressure differences between two points. The transport of water to the tops of trees occurs through xylem vessels.

The forces of adhesion and cohesion maintain a thin and unbroken columns of water in the capillaries of xylem vessels through which it travesl upward. Water is mainly pulled by transpiration from leaves. Cohesion-tension-transpiration pull Model Root pressure : A hydrostatic pressure existing in roots which pushes the water up in xylem vessels.

Guttation : The water loss in its liquid phase at night and early morning through special openings of vein near the tip of leaves. Transpiration : The loss of water through stomata of leaves and other aerial parts of plants in form of water vapour.

Osomosis : Osmosis is movement of solvent or water molecules from the region of their higher diffusion pressure or free energy to the region of their lower diffusion pressure or free energy across a semi-permeable membrane. Casparian strip : It is the tangential as well as radial walls of endodermal cells having the deposition of water impermeable suberin. Please send your queries to ncerthelp gmail. Link of our facebook page is given in sidebar. Copyright ncerthelp. Follow Us On Facebook.

plant notes pdf

Please Share this webpage on facebook, whatsapp, linkdin and twitter. Facebook Twitter whatsapp Linkdin. Business Studies. Political Science.We prepare all the notes for this chapter in a very easy to understand and simple way so that students can understand the topics easily. One can download the notes as per their convenience.

Till now, students would have studied this concept in previous classes but that was just a brief description. And now, you are going to learn in-depth and get a detailed idea about sexual reproduction in flowering plants. In this chapter, students will learn about certain new topics and sub-topics that include:. Flower- A fascinating organ of angiosperms.

Pre-fertilization: Structures and events. Double fertilization. Post-fertilization: Structures and events. Development and seed and fruits. Types of fruits. You are going to learn about morphology, process, and the structure of sexual reproduction in flowering plants, formation of seeds, fruits, endosperm, stamen, pollen grain, pistil, megasporangium, embryo sac, pollination, and a lot more. Well, Vedantu explains the complete chapter while covering every single topic explained in a very interactive manner.

It is carried on a stalk known as pedicel. Flower has an upper swollen region that is called receptacle. A usual angiosperm flower comprises 4 whorls of floral appendages which are attached on the receptacle- calyx, corolla, androecium, and gynoecium.

Calyx is the outer whorl of the flower that includes green sepals. Most of the sepals are green in color while some might resemble the color of the petals. This case is referred to as petaloid. The second whorl of a flower is corolla that comprises multiple petals. The third whorl of a flower is Androecium that acts as the male reproductive organ that comprises stamens. Gynoecium is the forth and innermost whorl of a flower that acts as the female reproductive organ of a flower.To browse Academia.

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Anatomy of Flowering Plants Notes for NEET, Download PDF!

Assuming a circulation ratio of The pressure head developed. The void fraction at riser exit. The heat transfer rate per unit projected area of the riser tube. Created by: Assistant Professor Dr. The inlet boiler feed water temperature is Co saturated. Calculate the steam generator efficiency if the fuel mass flow rate is. Determine the power produced if the isentropic efficiency of the turbine is. The intermediate bleed pressures are obtained such that the saturation temperature intervals are approximately equal, giving pressure of and.

Some of the steam then goes to an open feed water heater and the balance is reheated to Coafter which it expands in the LP turbine to. The reheat pressure. The net power output in MW. The thermal efficiency. Determine the ideal work output of the turbine per kg of steam and find the dryness fraction at the turbine exit. Mark Q An ideal regenerative steam cycle using two closed feed water heaters with drains backward, the steam is supplied to the turbine at bar, Coand is exhausted to the condenser at.

Mark Calculate the following: neglect pump work 1- The amount of steam bled at each stage. Steam enters the igh Pressure turbine at bar and C. After o expansion to barsome of the steam goes to an open feed water heater and the remaining steam is reheated to Coafter which it expands in the Low Pressure turbine to.

Mark Calculate the following: neglect pump work. Assuming a slip ratio of 1. The receiver converts feedwater from the condenser at 0. No feedwater heaters are used. The exhaust gas from the turbine being the supply gas to the heat recovery steam generator at which a further supply of fuel is burned in the gas.

Combustion at the Supplementary firing equipment raises the gas temperature to Coand the gas leaves the heat recovery steam generator at Co. The steam condition at the steam turbine inlet is 60 bar, Co and the condenser pressure is 0.

Assume ideal processes for both units. Neglect the mass of fuel and the feed pump work. Draw a simple sketch for the plant and the T-s diagram and estimate the following: a The mass flow rates of air and steam b The thermal efficiency of the combined plant For compression process:.

For combustion and expansion processes:. Q5: A furnace wall riser of a steam generator, 18 m long, receives saturated water at 10 bar. Estimate the following: a Number of jets b Jet diameter c Turbine wheel diameter d Volumetric discharge of water Q6 B : A steam power plant produce and use a Once-Through circulating water system from a river to cool its condenser. Expansion in the turbine is adiabatic to a pressure of 2 bar.

Determine the temperature of steam interring the turbine and calculate the work output from the turbine. Q2: An ideal regenerative steam cycle using two closed feed water heaters with drains cascaded backward, the steam is supplied to the turbine at 40 bar, Coand is exhausted to the condenser at 0.